Decide which Journal(s) you will want to submit to and download their manuscript composition guidelines from their websites. Determine which publication style is acceptable for the Journal and consistently follow that style through the entire entire manuscript. For instance, Soundings uses APA style (American Psychological Association). A few of the more widely used style manuals include:
Parts of the Paper
Virtually all research papers are composed of seven separate sections including an abstract, introduction, hypothesis, materials & methods, results, discussion, and reference section.
An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of the completed work whereby your reader can learn the explanation behind the research, general approach to the situation, pertinent results, and important conclusions. The abstract could be the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Summarize the research succinctly, using the past tense, complete sentences and grammar that is correct. Through the following elements:
- Function of the research – hypothesis, overall question, objective (try to define in one single sentence)
- Model organism or system and brief description for the experiment (try to define in one sentence)
- Results, including specific data that are quantitative link between statistical analyses
- Important conclusions or questions that follow from the experiment(s)
The goal of an introduction is always to acquaint your reader utilizing the rationale behind the task. Provide a complete literary summary of the data known about the topic (that both supports and contrasts your hypothesis) placing your projects in a context that is theoretical enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. Describe the importance (significance) of the study and exactly why this has value. Defend the model and provide a rationale. Explain why you selected this particular organism or system? What are its advantages/disadvantages? You may comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical good reasons for utilizing it.
A hypothesis is an educated guess exactly how things work. Your hypothesis should be constructed in a manner that helps you reply to your original research question and be stated in a way that can be simply measured. Your quest need to have addressed whether your hypothesis is true or false. Describe the reasoning and references that led you to make each hypothesis.
Materials and Methods
Materials and methods can be reported under separate subheadings in this particular section or can together be incorporated. The objective would be to document all specialized materials and general procedures to ensure another individual could use some or all the methods an additional study or judge the merit that is scientific of work. It’s not to be one step by step description of whatever you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. Omit all explanatory information and background, saving this when it comes to discussion. Also avoid including information that is irrelevant to an authorized, such as for instance what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged within the data. Typically, the person that is third voice can be used to create this section.
The purpose of a results section would be to provide and illustrate your findings figures that are using tables that may portray the results most effectively. This section must certanly be a completely objective report of the results and any interpretation of what these results indicate must be reserved for the for the discussion section. Describe every one of your outcomes, pointing the reader to observations which can be most relevant, however, the written text should complement figures and/or tables, not repeat the information that is same. If applicable, describe outcomes of control experiments and can include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table. Never include raw data or calculations that are intermediate a research paper. Usually do not present the same data more than once custom writing. Utilize the past tense when you make reference to your outcomes and put everything in a order that is logical.
The discussion section is employed to offer an interpretation of one’s results and support your conclusions evidence that is using your experiment and, if appropriate, from other published literature. While you describe your computer data make sure to identify mechanisms which will account for the outcomes. If for example the results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. When your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It is never appropriate to simply suggest that the information agreed with expectations, and allow it to drop. Decide in the event that experimental design was properly controlled an if it adequately addressed the hypothesis(es). Describe if each hypothesis was supported, rejected, or if perhaps a determination could not be created using confidence, and expand upon the mechanisms that deemed it so. Compare and contrast your research findings with literature review findings and attempt to offer alternative explanations if at all possible. One experiment will likely not answer an question that is overall so keeping the big picture in your mind, identify what questions remain and suggest areas that require further study.
List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. Only use primary literature (original research articles authored by the original investigators).